Natural products obtained from plants, marine organisms or microorganisms are the sources of a number of drugs. Bioactive natural compounds may also be used as tools to better understand their interaction with enzymes or proteins, unknown pathways in cell division or disease processes and to design new drugs. The session will be devoted to the discovery of new bioactive natural products with emphasis on modern techniques for their detection, isolation and structural determination.
Acquired Skills :
-From the preparation of natural extracts to active pure compounds
-Screening and HTS
-Emerging viruses (ARN+) and drug resistance
The goal of the course "Molecular Engineering” is to provide the students with theoretical and practical concepts making possible to obtain a protein (enzyme, binder, etc) with desired characteristics. The first part of the course aims at familiarising the students with the necessary tools: molecular modelling, cloning, expression, purification and characterisation of proteins and mutants. The second part of the course deals with typical examples concerning the design and activity of industrial enzymes, or pharmacological targets with desired properties. In the last part, we will describe some interesting aspects of modular viral proteins. Within the practical course, students will use molecular graphics and modelling softwares and the production of proteins in E. coli, from cloning to purification, and will characterize a mutant with desired activity designed by in-silico approach. Finally, the project will make it possible for students to apply their theoretical and practical skills to a real case.
Acquired Skills :
-Understanding 3D structures and use of molecular modellig softwares
-Cloning, expression, purification and characterisation of proteins and mutants-Design and production of a mutated protein with desired characteristics.
Biosensors technology: DNA microarray, peptide ans protein -soluble or not soluble- analysis chips, and cell analysis biochips. The course will permit to deepen some of the main physical or biophysical principles used for the fabrication and use of these biosensors:
Fabrication principle of DNA microarrays
Soluble protein or peptide biochips
- 2D electrophoresis
- Mass spectrometer coupling
- Peptide microarrays - surface functionnalization aspects
Membrane protein biochips
- Planar patch clamp technology
- Miniaturization and noise
- Cell sorting using DEP, or microfluidic principles
- Cell detection and analysis using impedancemetry
- Ampérometric detection on a chip - advantage of miniaturized electrodes
Nanobiotechnologies; characterization, design and application and to clarified the potential of nanotechnology in diagnosis and therapy
Intracellular engineering at nanometer scale; e.g. cellular machineries
Nanoimaging in biology and medicine
Nanoparticles and diagnosis
Liposomes as pharmaceuticals carriers
Labchips and diagnosisNanomedecine and cancer
I Dosage form development: formulation and characterisations (homogenous systems, heterogeneous system, liquids, semisolids, solids forms)
Dosage form-therapeutical-biopharmaceutical correlations.
II LADME system in preclinical development and prediction in silico
III Evaluation of release, absorption, biopharmacy and distribution of drugs ; experimental approaches.
IV Drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions in research and developmentMetabolism and drugs interactions , basic concepts on drug metabolism and drug interactions; Inhibition and induction studies, In vitro and in vivo predictions - Drug transporters , Basic concepts on drug transporters,Enzyme and transporter mediated drug-drug interactions
-Knowledge of formulation for therapeutical effect (choice of dosage with biopharmaceutical parameters)
-Knowledge of LADME studies and used in medicine development-Knowledge of experimental studies and prediction methods of LADME
1. Knowledge of databases for sequences and structures of
2. Using tools for sequence analysis: applications to the study of repertoires of antibody recognition sites and to the study of specificities (autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas, myelomas...).
3. Bioinformatic structural analysis for the humanization of monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic purposes (IMGT Collier de Perles methodology).
4. Prediction and analysis of immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies.
5. Structural analysis of antibody fragments and their recognition sites for the discovery of new drugs.
This TU will be based in particular on the tools and databases developed by IMGT(r), the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (r), http://www.imgt.org, the international reference system used by many pharmaceutical companies (CentocorResearch and Development Inc. Johnson & Johnson USA, AMGEN Inc. USA, Sanofi-Aventis GmbH Germany, Merck & Co. Inc. USA, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. Japan, Astellas Pharma Inc. Japan, Agensys Inc. USA, Merck Serono SA Switzerland, F. HOFFMAN-LA ROCHE Switzerland, etc..).The teaching requires a PC connected to Internet per student.
Acquired Skills :
1. Methodological skills in immunoinformatics.
2. Bioinformatics skills in antibody engineering.
3. Skills in bioinformatic analysis of therapeutic antibodies.
The goal of the course "Protein, peptides and nucleotide formulation” is to provide the students with a detailed view of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA and proteins. The course covers the conformation features of nucleic acid and protein building-blocks; the structures of DNA, RNA and proteins; the principle of protein folding; and the principles of protein -DNA/RNA recognition, protein-protein interactions.This course also introduces the students to some useful websites/ bioinformatics tools which offer the opportunities of viewing structures and structural predictions.
Acquired Skills :
-Theoretical knowledge of molecular structures of DNA, RNA and proteins
-General principles of molecular interactions among DNA, RNA and proteins